History and the Environment 10: Climate Change in the Middle Ages?

I recently read about a warming trend in Europe during the Middle Ages.  The climate change issue seems to be reoccurring again today, and when I came across this information, I had to use it for my last blog for History and Environment for school this semester.  I have said many times in my blog that history comes in cycles, well……..this made me think about weather patterns and climate change, and are these also more cyclical than man caused?  Does this make me think that Earth warming comes in cycles, and is not assisted by CO2 emissions?  No, but this sure is interesting.

From the about 950 to 1300Ad, Europe lived in a time when the average temperature for the area was 1.6 degrees warmer during the summer, and 6 degrees warmer in the winter.  In 1965, Herbert Lame, a paleoclimateologist did an in depth study on the botany, meteorology and primary historical documents of the time.  These warmer temperatures happened to be higher than the average temperatures of Europe in the 20th century!  I found this amazing.  Carbon levels in the atmosphere were approximately 1/2 of what resides in our air today.

What caused this to happen?  Apparently a shift in air circulation in the Atlantic Ocean, allowed the warm water currents to carry the weather to Europe during this time.  One of the reasons this warm stretch was important is that it allowed for:

1.  Massive Population Growth

2. Increased Agriculture Yields

3. Created Wealth

4. Cathedrals were built!

5. Art and Architecture were improved

6. Broken up ice, allowed the Vikings to settle Iceland, Greenland, and North America (Lance Aux Meadows).

These side effects from the warmer temperatures ultimately ended around the time the right before the Renaissance began.  What is even more amazing is that when the warmer temperatures ended, a new era of weather hit Europe called the “Little Ice Age.” where the lowest temperatures to hit the Earth since the Ice Ages 10,000 years ago.  The proof was found in the tree rings.  They showed that there was indeed a climactic change in climate around 1300.  The “Little Ice Age” led to famine, plague, and a general decline in health.

I find this amazing.  I can see how some people deny climate change because it is cyclical in some ways.  But, today we have technologies that visually illustrate holes in the ozone layers, and measure the parts per million carbon in our atmosphere.  I still find it interesting that at another time and place in history that our species was dealing with an increase in temperature and it helped them thrive.  This is a huge contrast to the belief we hold now.  From many readings have I had here in college, a 6 degree temperature rise would destroy the planet and disrupt many biospheres.  I am grateful to nature for its preservation of things that allow us to study the past, and am equally grateful to the people that have preserved the historical documents of past times.



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History and the Environment 9: National Parks and Corporations.

When Garcia Lopez de Cardenas first laid his eyes on the Grand Canyon in 1540, he must have lost his breath while his eyes swelled up to the size of silver dollars.  This magnificent wonder of the world that formed over 18 billion years ago must have seemed like some kind of fairy tale story land.  If I was a betting man, I am sure he enjoyed the scenery very much.  But he was not the first human to trample around and in the Canyon.  The Pueblo peoples all the way back to the first Native Americans to arrive over the Bering Strait were more than likely enthralled by it too.  In 1919 when Woodrow Wilson finally made it the 17th national park, millions had already visited the site.  I also remember walking up to the edge of the Grand Canyon for the first time.  I felt so small compared to my surroundings.  I also feel small in this world of big money corporations.  Corporations that have so much power that they not only influence our daily lives, they influence decisions made by our National Park System.  I understand that our government is underfunded and can use corporate help, but I ran across something in the paper the other day, that got me upset.  The Grand Canyon wanted to ban all bottled water from the park, because people are littering everywhere with these water bottles.  They were about to push this through until they were contacted by Coca Cola and because Coke is the major National Parks partner, the ban did not go though. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/10/science/earth/parks-chief-blocked-plan-for-grand-canyon-bottle-ban.html?_r=1&smid=fb-nytimes&WT.mc_id=SC-SM-E-FB-SM-LIN-PCB-111111-NYT-NA&WT.mc_ev=click  I find it amazing that an environmental issue like that has corporate influence.  Is this the America the Beautiful we think of.  The Grand Canyon filled to the brim with plastic bottles.  I may be going overboard, but how many times have you walked in the woods, and saw old beer cans and trash laying around everywhere?  Well I hate it.  I would very much dislike walking around the Grand Canyon and seeing plastic water bottles everywhere, and I am sure the director of the park feels the same way but is under pressure from corporate America to leave it be.  Maybe in the future if our Park services care  about the environment they could ask that the corporate partners be kind and not attach any stipulations to their support.  Thanks, Brent.

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History and the Environment 8: The new Dustbowl

The Dustbowl of the 1930s wrecked havok on the Midwest.  Big clouds of dust covered the skies reducing visibilty to zero and made many acres of farmland useless.  It also displaced thousands of people as the dust storms blew all the way across to the east coast.  Cities as far east as Chicago and Washington DC were attacked by these menacing dirt clouds.  The dustbowl was caused by churning up the topsoil, overfarming and lack of crop rotation.  The reason I bring this up is that just recently on msn.com I happend to run across a recent story that showed many places in Texas being covered by new dust storms in 2011, and I wondered……….since history tends to repeat itself if these new storms were caused by the same factors as the ones in the 1930s.  After reading a few articles about the new storms, the facts are clear.  The number one factor in creating dust storms is drought.  In today’s world of climate change drought seems to continue to be a factor in making bigger dust storms for people living in areas where the top soil can be blown up into the air rather easily.  Texas has experienced some dust storms since the 1930s but most have been relatively small until recently.  In October the biggest dust storm to hit Lubbock, Texas sine the 30s hit.  It produced a massive wall over 8,000 feet in height.  See Pictures below.  If climate change continues we could very well see the new dust storms and clouds reach the proportions of the great ones of the 1930s.

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History and the Environment 7: The first clean air regulations…….in 1306

London of the 12th and 13th centuries was already becoming a crowded place.  The cold winter weather along with burning massive amounts of wood for the production of metals and interestingly enough mead, caused a shift in the burning of wood in the capital, to burning the first vestiges of sea-coal found of the English coast.  Because London somewhat lays in a “bowl” geographically, it is very easy for an inversion of temperature to cause massive pollution in the city.  Think of it like this.  When some gets a cold and they put water in a bowl with menthol and cover their head with a towel and huff the fumes.  Well that bowl was and still is London today.  London is famous for its smog.  It is written about in many novels escpecailly the Sherlock Holmes variety.  Back to story.  When England first started burning sea-coal in the 1000-1100 year range, the skies around the city would fill up with a black smoke that caused all kinds of environmental problems.  Health problems and soot problems.  Enter Edward “Longshanks” I (King of England 1296-1307).  Edward watched his mother struggle with the respiratory problems associated with the coal-burning; she even left the palace to stay in the countryside.  He essentially passed the first environmental law ever.  In 1306 he banned coal-burning under penalty of death.  This did not stop the populace from burning coal.  Fast forward 800 years.  In December 1952, London had the worst smog attack ever.  This smog attack occurred like the many other ones that had come over the centuries, but this time a freak weather event caused the smog to stick around for 5 days, in which a record number (12,000) or so people died.  This led to the Clean Air Acts of 1956 and 1958 which greatly reduced pollution in London.

bibliography: Wise, William.  Killer Smog:  The Worlds Worst Air Pollution Disaster. iUniverse. Bloomington, In. 2001.

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History and the Environment 6: “There are some places we are not meant to go.”

I read a great book a few years ago, called Into Thin Air by Jon Krakauer.  The book is about a failed expedition on Mount Everest in 1996.  The extreme environment on top of the mountain during the main ascent season (May/June) is sometimes sketchy in terms of weather.  Frequently storms hit the upper peak of the mountain bringing winds of 20-80 mph and temperatures from 40 – 80 below zero.  Not to mention that the altitude of the mountain is around 28,000 feet.  Its a place where humans do not belong.  I often wonder throughout history why people feel the need to conquer remote places on the Earth.  I understand the attraction to climb the highest mountain on the planet.  I understand the attraction of riding a one man submarine into the deepest parts of the ocean.  Sounds like a blast right?  Sure.  That season on Everest 12 people died, and since people decided to start climbing the mountain 1 in 20 have died attempting it.  I read somewhere that around 210 deaths to 3600 summits of the mountain.  I find it particularly odd that many of the people who die on the mountain leave behind wives and children.  Again, there are some places man kind were not meant to conquer.  On a side note, apparently over the last few years with climate change, the peak is revealing many bodies and tons of trash located near the summit.  In fact I just found an interesting article on this:


Here also is a list copied from wikipedia that shows the deaths on Everest.

1 John Delaney  Republic of Ireland Altitude sickness [1][2]
12 May 2011 Taskahi Ozaki  Japan Altitude sickness [3][2]
9 May 2011 Shailendra Kumar Upadhyaya  Nepal Age [4][5][2]
1 May 2011 Rick Hitch  United States Heart attack [6][2]
26 May 2010 Peter Kinloch  United Kingdom Frostbite and exhaustion [7]
19 May 2010 Tom Jørgensen  Denmark [8]
26 April 2010 Laszlo Varkonyi  Hungary
16 June 2009 Andres Guzman Garza  Mexico
21 May 2009 Frank Ziebarth  Canada
19 May 2009 Wenhong Wu  China
18 May 2009 Veslav Chrzaszcz  Czech Republic [9]
7 May 2009 Lhakpa Nuru  Nepal [10]
21 May 2008 Uwe Gianni Goltz  Switzerland [11]
17 May 2007 Maurizio Pierangelo  Italy [12]
17 May 2007 Oh Hee-Joon  South Korea [12]
17 May 2007 Lee Hyun-Jo  South Korea [12]
16 May 2007 Yoshitomi Okura  Japan
16 May 2007 Libor Kozak  Czech Republic
16 May 2007 Yasuhiko Mochizuki  Japan
15 May 2007 Shinichi Ishii  Japan
26 April 2007 Dawa Sherpa  Nepal Avalanche [13]
25 May 2006 Thomas Weber  Germany
22 May 2006 Igor Plyushkin  Russia [14]
19 May 2006 Vitor Negrete  Brazil
17 May 2006 Jacques-Hugues Letrange  France [15]
16 May 2006 Tomas Olsson  Sweden [16]
15 May 2006 David Sharp  United Kingdom Exposure
14 May 2006 Sri Krishan  India
21 April 2006 Ang Phinjo  Nepal
21 April 2006 Lhakkpa Tseri  Nepal
21 April 2006 Dawa Temba  Nepal
4 April 2006 Tuk Bahadur Thapa Masar  Nepal [17]
5 June 2005 Robert William Milne  United Kingdom [18]
4 June 2005 Dieter Kramer  Germany [19]
30 May 2005 Sirigereshiva Shankarappa Chaitanya  India [12]
21 May 2005 Marko Lihteneker  Slovenia [20]
2 May 2005 Michael Corey O’Brien  United States Fall from the Khumbu Icefall [21][22]
29 April 2005 Sean Egan  Canada [23]
24 May 2004 Mariana Prodanova Maslarova  Bulgaria [24]
23 May 2004 Shoko Ota  Japan [25]
20 May 2004 Hristo Ganchev Hristov  Bulgaria [25]
18 May 2004 Nils Antezana  United States [26]
18 May 2004 Joon-Ho Baek  South Korea [27]
18 May 2004 Min Jang  South Korea [28]
18 May 2004 Mu-Taek Park  South Korea [29],
27 May 2003 Bhim Bahagur Gurung  Nepal
25 May 2003 Jan Krzysztof Liszewski  Poland
24 May 2003 Karma Gylzen  Nepal [30]
8 May 2003 Amaud Saulnier  France
8 September 2002 Marco Siffredi  France Fall with snowboard [31]
May 2002 Zoran Miletic  Yugoslavia [12]
30 April 2002 Peter Legate  United Kingdom [32]
20 October 2001 Sándor Gárdos  Hungary [33]
24 May 2001 Mark Auricht  Australia HACE [34]
24 May 2001 Alexei Nikiforov  Russia [35]
23 May 2001 Peter Ganner  Austria [12][36]
29 April 2001 Babu Chiri Sherpa  Nepal Fall into crevasse [37]
21 May 2000 Yan Gen-hua  Chile [12]
20 May 2000 Jeppe Stoltz  Denmark [12]
18 May 1999 Tadeusz Kudelski  Poland [12]
18 May 1999 Pascal Debrouwer  Belgium Snow blizzard – Fall [12]
13 May 1999 Mike Matthews  United Kingdom [12]
8 May 1999 Vasili Kopytko  Ukraine [12]
26 May 1998 Roger Buick  New Zealand [12]
25 May 1998 Mark Jennings  United Kingdom [12]
24 May 1998 Francys Arsentiev  France exhaustion – Altitude sickness [38]
24 May 1998 Sergei Arsentiev  Russia Fall [39]
8 September 1997 Choi Byong-Soo  South Korea [12]
25 May 1997 Tenzing Nuru  Nepal [12]
8 May 1997 Peter Kowalzik  Germany [12]
7 May 1997 Aleksandr Toroschin  Russia [12][40]
7 May 1997 Ivan Plotnikov  Russia [12][40]
7 May 1997 Nikolai Shevtchenko  Russia [12][40]
7 May 1997 Mingma  Nepal [12][40]
6 May 1997 Nima Rinzi  Nepal [12]
23 April 1997 Malcolm Duff  United Kingdom [12][40]
25 September 1996 Lopsang Jangbu Sherpa  Nepal Avalanche [41]
25 September 1996 Dawa Sherpa  Nepal Avalanche [42]
25 September 1996 Ives Bouchon  France Avalanche [43]
6 June 1996 Ngawang Topche Sherpa  Nepal HAPE [44]
25 May 1996 Bruce Herrod  United Kingdom [45]
19 May 1996 Reinhard Wlasich  Austria HAPE / HACE [12]
11 May 1996 Scott Fischer  United States Exposure [46]
11 May 1996 Rob Hall  New Zealand Exposure [46]
11 May 1996 Doug Hansen  United States Exposure [46]
11 May 1996 Andrew Harris  New Zealand Exposure [46]
11 May 1996 Yasuko Namba  Japan Exposure [46]
10 May 1996 Dorje Morup  India Exposure [46]
10 May 1996 Tsewang Paljor  India Exposure [46]
10 May 1996 Subedar Tsewang Samanla  India Exposure [46]
9 May 1996 Chen Yu Nan  Taiwan [12]
14 October 1995 Zangbu  Nepal [12]
10 September 1995 Lhakpa Nuru  Nepal [12]
6 May 1995 Kami Rita  Nepal [12]
12 September 1994 Mingma Norbu  Nepal [12]
27 May 1994 Mike Rheinberger  Australia HACE [47]
18 May 1994 Giuseppe Vigani  Italy [12]
9 May 1994 Shih Fang-Fang  Thailand [12]
6 April 1994 Prem Thapa  Nepal [12]
7 October 1993 Antonio Miranda  Spain [12]
5 October 1993 Karl Henize  United States [12]
17 May 1993 An Jin-Seob  South Korea [12]
16 May 1993 Nam Won-Woo  South Korea [12]
10 May 1993 Lobsang Tshering  Nepal
23 April 1993 Pasang Lhamu  Nepal [12]
23 April 1993 Sonam Tshering  Nepal [12]
15 January 1993 Ang Tshering  Nepal [12]
23 May 1992 Manabu Hoshi  Japan [12]
22 May 1992 Sher Singh  India [12]
11 May 1992 Subba Singh  Nepal [12]
2 May 1992 Deepak Kulkarni  India [12]
2 May 1992 Raymond Jacob  India [12]
27 May 1991 Junichi Futagami  Japan [12]
3 May 1991 Rüdiger Lang  Germany [12]
7 October 1990 Ham Sang-Hun  South Korea [12]
12 September 1990 Rafael Gómez-Menor  Spain [12]
12 September 1990 Ang Sona  Nepal [12]
12 September 1990 Badrinath Ghising  Nepal [12]
12 December 1989 Ang Pinjo  Nepal [12]
28 May 1989 Eugeniusz Chrobak  Poland [12]
27 May 1989 Mirosław Dąsal  Poland [12]
27 May 1989 Mirosław Gardzielewski  Poland [12]
27 May 1989 Andrzej Heinrich  Poland [12]
27 May 1989 Wacław Otręba  Poland [12]
16 May 1989 Phu Dorje (III)  Nepal [12]
10 May 1989 Dimitar Ilievski Murato  Macedonia [48]
23 December 1988 Ang Lhakpa Dorje  Nepal [12]
17 October 1988 Jozef Just  Czechoslovakia [12]
17 October 1988 Peter Božík  Czechoslovakia [12]
17 October 1988 Dušan Becík  Czechoslovakia [12]
17 October 1988 Jaroslav Jaško  Czechoslovakia [12]
13 October 1988 Lhakpa Sonam  Nepal [12]
13 October 1988 Pasang Temba (II)  Nepal [12]
21 September 1988 Narayan Shrestha  Nepal [12]
20 September 1988 Michel Parmentier  France [12]
21 April 1988 Hidetaka Mizukoshi  Japan [12]
20 October 1987 Mangal Singh  Nepal [49]
2 September 1987 Masao Yokoyama  Japan [12]
21 May 1987 Roger Marshall  Canada [12]
30 January 1987 Tsuttin Dorje  Nepal [12]
17 October 1986 Dawa Norbu  Nepal [12]
4 October 1986 Gyalu  Nepal [12]
28 September 1986 Simon Burkhardt  Switzerland [12]
16 August 1986 Víctor Hugo Trujillo  Chile [12]
11 October 1985 Capt Vijay Pal Singh Negi (Indian Army)  India Exposure [12]
11 October 1985 Lt Ranjeet Singh Bakshi (Indian Army)  India Exposure [12]
11 October 1985 Maj Jai Bahugana (Indian Army)  India Exposure and frostbite [12][50]
11 October 1985 Lt M.U. Bhaskar Rao (Indian Army)  India Exposure [12]
7 October 1985 Maj Kiran Inder Kumar (Indian Army)  India Fall [12][50]
17 September 1985 Shinichi Ishii  Japan [51]
12 May 1985 Juanjo Navarro  Spain [12]
24 October 1984 Ang Dorje  Nepal [12]
24 October 1984 Yogendra Thapa  Nepal [12]
16 October 1984 Jozef Psotka  Slovakia
9 October 1984 Craig Nottle  Australia Fall [12]
9 October 1984 Fred From  Australia Fall [12]
21 April 1984 Hristo Prodanov  Bulgaria
3 April 1984 Tony Swierzy  United Kingdom [49]
26 March 1984 Ang Rinji  Nepal [12]
9 October 1983 Hiroshi Yoshino  Japan [12]
8 October 1983 Pasang Temba  Nepal
8 October 1983 Hironobu Kamuro  Japan [12]
28 December 1982 Yasuo Kato  Japan [52],
28 December 1982 Toshiaki Kobayashi  Japan [12]
14 October 1982 Nima Dorje  Nepal [12]
27 September 1982 Lhakpa Tshering  Nepal [12]
2 September 1982 Blair Griffiths  Canada [12]
31 August 1982 Pasang Sona  Nepal
31 August 1982 Ang Chuldim  Nepal [12]
31 August 1982 Dawa Dorje  Nepal [12]
17 May 1982 Peter Boardman  United Kingdom
17 May 1982 Joe Tasker  United Kingdom
15 May 1982 Marty Hoey  United States
12 January 1981 Noboru Takenaka  Japan [12]
22 September 1980 Mario Piana  Italy [12]
6 September 1980 Nawang Kersang  Nepal [12]
2 May 1980 Akira Ube  Japan [12]
12 October 1979 Wang Hong-Bao  China
12 October 1979 Luo San  China [12]
12 October 1979 Nima Tashi  Nepal [12]
3 October 1979 Ray Genet  United States [12]
3 October 1979 Hannelore Schmatz  Germany [12]
13 May 1979 Ang Phu  Nepal [53]
May 1978 Shi Ming-ji  China [12]
18 April 1978 Dawa Nuru  Nepal [12]
10 April 1976 Terry Thompson  United Kingdom [54]
26 September 1975 Mick Burke  United Kingdom [55]
4 May 1975 Wu Tseng-yue  China [55]
9 September 1974 Gérard Devouassoux  France Avalanche [53]
9 September 1974 Lhakpa  Nepal Avalanche [53]
9 September 1974 Sanu Wongal  Nepal Avalanche [53]
9 September 1974 Pemba Dorje  Nepal Avalanche [53]
9 September 1974 Nawang Lutuk  Nepal Avalanche [53]
9 September 1974 Nima Wangchu  Nepal Avalanche [53]
12 October 1973 Jangbu  Nepal [12]
16 November 1972 Tony Tighe  Australia Serac collapse [54]
18 April 1971 Capt Harsh Bahuguna (Indian Army)  India Exposure and frostbite [12]
21 April 1970 Kiyoshi Narita  Japan [12]
9 April 1970 Kyak Tshering  Nepal [12]
5 April 1970 Mima Norbu  Nepal Avalanche [12]
5 April 1970 Nima Dorje  Nepal Avalanche [12]
5 April 1970 Tshering Tarkey  Nepal Avalanche [12]
5 April 1970 Pasang  Nepal Avalanche [12]
5 April 1970 Kunga Norbu  Nepal Avalanche [12]
5 April 1970 Kami Tshering  Nepal Avalanche [12]
18 October 1969 Phu Dorje  Nepal [12]
May 1966 Ma Gao-Shu  China [12]
23 March 1963 Jake Breitenbach  United States [56]
28 April 1962 Nawang Tshering  Nepal [12]
May 1960 Wang Ji  Tibet [57]
May 1960 Shao Shi-Ching  China [58]
31 October 1952 Mingma Dorje  Nepal [59]
June 1934 Maurice Wilson  United Kingdom
9 June 1924 Andrew Irvine  United Kingdom
9 June 1924 George Mallory  United Kingdom
17 May 1924 Manbahadur India British India [12]
13 May 1924 Shamsherpun  Nepal [12]
7 June 1922 Norbu India British India Avalanche [12]
7 June 1922 Lhakpa India British India Avalanche [12]
7 June 1922 Pasang India British India Avalanche [12]
7 June 1922 Pema India British India Avalanche [12]
7 June 1922 Sange India British India Avalanche [12]
7 June 1922 Dorje India British India Avalanche [12]
7 June 1922 Temba India British India Avalanche [60]
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History and the Environment 5 “The sacrifices made to protect nature can be high”

On Labor day, 1935, the most powerful (Cat 5) hurricane to hit the United States ever, hit land in the Florida Keys.  This hurricane demolished the coast of Florida with a 20 foot surge.  The wind speed was at 185 mph.  Not one building on the Florida Keys survived.  During this same time, the newly appointed Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), created by Roosevelt’s New Deal, was operating in the Florida Keys.  The 684 men that were working there(mostly World War I veterans) were planting trees and cleaning up the environment, and setting up one of the first state parks in the area.  They had no idea what was coming for them.  In those days, the hurricane warnings were very primitive, and often wrong.  It was predicted that the hurricane would move on into the Gulf of Mexico, but did not.  When the weather service found it had messed up, they sent a train to pick up the CCC workers, but it was too late.  The train derailed somewhere south of Miami.It proved to be fatal to all of them.  When all was said and done, there were 44 missing, 284 confirmed deaths, and 107 injured.  Some men were sandblasted to death with clothing and skin heavily scraped from their bodies.  This early sacrifice in the CCC could have been avoided if the technology of the 30’s was better.  This was a great example of a sacrifice to protect nature, although a unessecary one.

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History and the Environment 4: “Can Deep Ecologists Go too Far?”

I just ran by a really cool article on the internet by Donald Worster from 1995 titled The Rights of Nature: Has Deep Ecology Gone Too Far.  In the article he cites a historical event that occurred in the small village of St. Julien, France which is famous for its wines and is located near Bordeaux.  Apparently in 1587 there was a bad infestation of weevil that attacked the grape crops causing massive damage.  The small town brought up a legal suit against the weevil and actually lost in court, because it was deemed that insects, being creatures of God, had every right to live in the same place as humans.  This historical example is a great example of historical deep ecology.  Deep ecologist believe that all organisms on earth should be able to live and have space, but what about humans?  Do we have a right to live a comfortable life and dominate nature while bending it to our will?  Well, in my opinion there has to be some kind of balance.  If I were a deep ecologist living in Bordeaux at the time, I would have agreed with the ruling wholeheartedly, but then again, if the shoe was on the other foot, and I was growing the grapes for profit, the weevil would certainly be a pest.  I’m kind of on the fence with the deep ecology thing.  I think that deep ecologist go to far on many occasions.  I do believe that humans can co exist with nature by doing minimal damage and finding sustainable solutions for the survival of all species.  What does that make me?  Hell, I don’t know.   But if It was 1920 in south Georgia when the boll weevil was destroying cotton fields, and that’s how I made my living, I would probably fist fight a deep ecologist trying to tell me not do something about the weevils.  Like I said there has to be some kind of balance between humans and nature.  We are both here on Earth, we share the planet, and hopefully we will share this planet for many centuries to come.  Brent.


Worster, Donald.  The Rights of Nature:  Has Deep Ecology Gone too Far.   http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/51614/donald-worster/the-rights-of-nature-has-deep-ecology-gone-too-far. Internet.  Accessed 9 September 2011.

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